March 8th, 1903 - Charles Gavan Duffy, last of the Young Ireland leaders, is buried in Dublin: Glasnevin Cemetery.Excerpt from Ireland Her Own by TA Jackson:Duffy's Tenant's Right LeagueCharles Gavan Duffy
, the only Young Ireland leader left at liberty in Ireland after the turmoils of '48
, attempted to organise a constitutional agitation to secure the "three F's" (fixity of tenure, fair rent and freedom of sale). His Tenant's Right League met with considerable success in 1852, but was brought to nothing by the sabotage and desertion of a group known derisively as the Pope's Brass Band.
When Gavan Duffy restarted the Nation
in 1850, he had to record, along with a widespread outbreak of "Ribbon" outrages, the progress of two distinct agitations for legislation to abate the rapacity of that new type of landlord which was emerging daily from the Encumbered Estates Courts. In the North, the agitation, led by Protestant and Presbyterian ministers, arose from a well-based fear that the new speculator-landlords would destroy (as under the new Act they could) the "Ulster custom" which gave tenants a property right in their improvements. Concurrently, in the South a group of public spirited young priests were agitating for the adoption there of the (imperilled) Ulster customs, as a reform.
Under the influence of the Nation, these distinct "Tenants' Protection Associations" came together and formed a Tenants' Right League. It had the support of the surviving "Repealers" in parliament; and of a number of English Radicals, such as Sharman Crawfurd and Poulet Scrope
. It was agreed, all around, that a Land Act embodying the three F's would be a real gain. A call was issued urging voters everywhere to support only such candidates as would pledge themselves to give support to Tenant's Right Principles, which were defined thus:
"Rent must be fixed by valuation of the land; the power of raising rents at will, or of recovering a higher rent taht one so established must be taken from the landlord. The tenant must have a fixed tenure; he must not be liable to disturbance, so long as he paid the rent established by valuation. If he chose to quit, or could not pay he must have the right to the market value of his tenancy. Nothing shall be included in the valuation, or be paid under it to the landlord , on account of improvements made by the tenant in possession, or those under whom he claims, unless these have been paid for by the landlord in reduced rent, or in some other way."**last part tomorrow.